Haiti: The New Platform and Portal for Creating Wealth By Mutual Stimulation Between The Economies of Africa and The Economies of The Americas
As it has been historically for us, Haiti's destiny today is once again unequivocally linked to America, Africa and The Caribbean. Sooner or later, so goes America on a geo-political level and so goes Africa as far as a material ascent or discent for the black world is concerned, so goes Haiti and vice versa. And as America and the rest of the developed world are about to realize it, Africa is the last great continent where they can make a last stand to grow their economies at home in the same range as China which is growing its economy in the 11% plus a year range and this phenomenal double digit growth can happen again for America and the rest of the top developed world just by growing the economies of Africa. Otherwise they will be caught up and even declassed by the roaring economies of the emerging 9: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, Turkey, Mexico, Chile, Saudi Arabia.
Haiti can play a role as a platform and a portal for that critical and profitable cross breeding and cross fertilization between the economies of Africa and the economies of The Americas and Haiti can live nicely off the dividends. Indeed, where else would you have hundred of millions of people still in need to consume, in extremely large bulk quantities, what the West is shutting down their national manufacturing doors for, if it is not in Africa? And moreover where else do you still find an abundance of natural resources still to be harnessed and to be made into the new innovative things that the West will consume, other than Africa?
Private equity firms in the US and elsewhere are already realizing that and are treating Africa as a continent like the next China, positioning themselves to find niches there to grow their capital like nowhere else. The trouble is there is no clear distinctive platform to deal with Africa and exploit its boundless opportunities for the countries of The Americas other than operating from Europe as a platform.
Haiti’s Comparative Advantage in the Model of Dubai: The Best Possible Bridge Between The Two Cultures of Africa and of The Americas
This is where Haiti comes into play:
1) inter-continent proximity,
2) enough untamed geographical space to start from a blank sheet and greenfield and build anything in our island, a land which can afford more than any other country a tabula rasa since we have not much to lose and which has very little high-costs retrofits to do,
and 3) a culture that looks and feels like Africa away from Africa.
The Caribbean countries like Trinidad, The Bahamas, Barbados, etc. have the offshore financial investments know-how and the money to help spur something great about Africa that America and the rest of the developed world can leverage when they see it is working. But no Caribbean country has the space within its territories to put up any such huge and sophisticated financial and portuary infrastructures in the scale and scope and in the way in which Haiti can.
Moreover, Haiti is at the heart of The Americas, geographically and almost equi- distant from one point to the other of the American continent, making it more efficient in time to dispatch anything to any country in The Americas out of Haiti. Furthermore, Haiti possesses a natural harbor like no other, the harbor of Port-au-Prince, where jumbo ships could enter the harbor from the southwest tip of the island in the area of Jeremie/Miragoane, unload their huge quantities of goods that are to be dispatched in smaller ships throughout The Americas, make a natural left turn in the area of La Gonave/St Marc and exit Haiti by the Mole St Nicolas area or the most northwest tip of the island.
Lastly, Haitians naturally behave as if they have all been raised in Africa while 99% of Haitians have never set foot in the continent, yet we seem to operate at the same level of comfort zone, adopting innate practices, stories, behaviors that seem similar in nature.
New Deal in The Works To Stabilize Haiti for good so it can play that Pivotal Role Specially if This and Other New Opportunities Will Spring From an Obama’s Presidency in The US
As the former second youngest Presidential Candidate of Haiti in the last general presidential elections of 2006, I, Emmanuel Justima, see Haiti, strategically and culturally, as an outgrowth of Africa in the Americas and I lead a group of several thousands, untainted young Turks from 25 to 55,young brilliantly educated Haitians men and women who are pledging their life, their fortune, their skills to work at positioning their island-nation of Haiti as such, guided by the vision and master plan that some close associates and I have been crafting for the levy of that new Haiti we call Haiti.2, the ambitious project of transformation of Haiti, planted over a span of 25 to 30 years to bloom into a new Haïtianna, one that plays a significant role in the division of labor of the new world that probably will be emerging.
Haiti, which will be led now by successive governments that would be part of this new deal for the new Haiti that our team would have been securing at home and abroad for a 30 year renewable period, would be tightly governed and transformed so as to become the principal interface between the two continents: The Americas and Africa, the new platform from which the two continents meet and do business.
The First Zoning and Re-Design of Haiti To Re-Create it As a Leading Platform and Hub
Such platform would be in the form of the development of 3 principal key critical infrastructures and a financial system in Haiti that can change Haiti and the world:
1) 1 huge air cargo hub and 1 huge sea cargo hub in the Center-West (Grand Centre-Ouest)region of Haiti,
2) the entire North-West (Grand-Nord)region of Haiti dedicated to Agriculture, Production and Processing and dedicated to be Africa's commodities commerce outlet and industrial far outpost where the commodities goods of Africa are traded and transformed in finished goods for the Americas,
3) a sophisticated currency exchange hub and platform in Port-au-Prince new financial district where are raised and managed the Americas's offshore investments into the pan-African economies.
1-About The Building in Haiti Of The Massive Port and Airport as Huge Air and Sea Cargo Hubs
Haiti as a platform would become the principal air and sea cargo hubs and the principal transatlantic direct connection between a massive port of ports in Port-au-Prince (which will be built in the great bay of the Haitian capital and which will stretch north from Port-au-Prince harbor to over 50kms all the way to the city of “Arcahaie”) and a port of ports in Africa, preferably in Accra, Ghana. We see goods coming from Asia through the port of Singapore or the one of Hong-Kong or the one of Mauritius islands, as well as raw materials collected all over Africa, converging to the Port of Accra, Ghana (or to the main port of Senegal) to be shipped directly across the continent in jumbo ships to the maritime hub of the port of Port-au-Prince which would be capable of handling in a sophisticated way the next generation of jumbo containers ships from where they will be unloaded and dispatched in smaller ships throughout the Americas—North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
In addition to this innovative port which would be built to achieve quick critical mass in scale and scope, we see Haiti building, right across this bay front and this 50 km long port of ports of Port-au-Prince, a world class, central transcontinental, 3 runway lanes international airport in the Haitian island of “La Gonave” which is situated right in front of the capital.
This island of La Gonave, which itself is located right at the heart of Haiti, is a central strategic position that needed to be exploited and that is where shall be built the 3 runway lanes 24/7 international airport that shall make Haiti the principal air hub and air cargo hub between the two continents, Africa and The Caribbean. It will be a state of the art airport facilities with a design capacity of over 11 millions tons of air cargo a year, coming from even the new generation superjumbo aircrafts, and with a handling capacity of pass 29,000 millions passengers annually.
Both gigantic infrastructures, the massive port and the state of the art airport, would be designed to place Haiti firmly in a “pole position” for regional logistics, tourism, industry and commerce. Haiti, in this way, will be remaking itself and its image and will be quickly known, with the rise of its new generation of leaders, as a global and steady brand of sophistication of services upstream and downstream to almost billions of consumers of the two continents. It is the current world economic order and The Americas geography that make this voluntary vision possible as Haiti finds itself blessed to be at the center, at the heart of The Americas.
And on the other side of the American continent, what makes Ghana a suitable prospect? Ghana right now is positioning itself already as the port of ports for Burkina Faso, Mali, Ivory Coast, Nigeria at times, and as the entry to the greater West African market.The greater West African market, of about 300 millions people, has been working towards a common currency, a common visa, one-roof consistency of practices in terms of common rules and regulations and enforcements of contracts.Evidently, once all or a majority of these West African countries as well as a majority of the rest of the other countries of the continent (led by the continental giant destined to be a world power South Africa) move toward stability of contract, social stability, political stability, and economic stability, we would be able to take advantage of that from Haiti’s geographical and cultural positions.
But only if Haiti also works on establishing firmly throughout its land these same 4 pillars of stability that make you be taken as a serious nation and a reliable, steady and bankable partner — stability of contract, social stability, political stability, and economic stability—and also only if our island nation does so out of a new vision, new values, new attitudes and new tools.That is the kind of leadership our various teams of young Haitians look to a Justima to provide so we can make our marks and our irreversible imprints on Haiti as a new generation and that is what I have been working on, in uniting and inspiring capable credible Haitians, in supplying the new blood and fresh eyes in the Haitian political landscape in order to give the impetus for a definitive fresh start for Haiti which, then, could find itself in that position to play this important role in the division of the world’s labor.
We see Haiti, partnering with the CARICOM countries, as one greater common single market, the like of the greater West African Market and I am even considering pushing CARICOM to go further into becoming a loosely coupled Caribbean Union where beyond the sophistries and the myriads photo-opps, there is really something sizable and tangible to gain for the population of each island, in terms of material wealth, if the Caribbean neighborhood remakes itself into a union so it significantly matter in America's backyard.
And in a show of great hemispheric unity, Haiti the big island and the big kid in the block offers, under our leadership, its territory to become CARICOM single market’s main platform, as the island-nations of the Caribbean through Haiti and with us, would seek to be Africa’s main commercial and industrial far outposts in the Americas, the lands of display and of trade of African commodities goods, services, and know-how. Everything from Africa shall transit through Haiti first as the principal sea and air cargo hubs and then from Haiti will be able to go anywhere in the Caribbean, and in the rest of The Americas.
2-About The Building in Haiti Of The Financial District and The Financial System as Principal Currency Exchange Place and Main Hub of Offshore Investments in The Pan-African Economies
To complete the first 2 critical infrastructures which are the 50 km long massive maritime port and the huge 3 way lanes transcontinental airport, we see Haiti becoming the principal currency exchange hub and Africa’s financial arm in The Americas as well as being the place for The Americas’ main offshore investments in Africa, as Haiti specializes itself at organizing, from its soil, the overseas community of investors in the pan African economy.
The business model for this will be simple: coordinating the sovereign funds from the countries of The Americas and the consortia of private equity firms, so as to lead each to continually raise yearly hundreds of billions of dollars to double and triple, as a rule of thumb, whatever China does in Africa. As an example, a Chinese company has agreed on a $ US 5 billion venture to build a mine, roads and power plants in the
Republic of Congo, owning 68 percent of the venture while Congolese nationals would hold 32 percent. Congo has the world's largest cobalt deposits and Africa's biggest copper reserves, and is seeking to rebuild an economy shattered by a civil war that ended in 2003 leaving 4 million dead. In return, Congo would transfer 10 to 15 million metric tons of copper and cobalt reserves to the new venture. That is a lot of tons that the Chinese, smartly, would control in such a deal. Imagine if it was The Americas doubling such an investment bet at $ US 10 billion and then would get in return the control of 24 to 30 million metric tons of such copper and cobalt reserves that could be jointly processed both in Africa and in the Americas to create wealth on both sides of the continent.Imagine also it is The Americas, instead of China, controlling 8 to 10 million metric tons of crude oil each quarter of the year from Angola. African oil grades, such as those supplied by Angola, are favored for their relatively low sulfur content and high yields of auto fuels and Angola would deliver, imagine that, more of that oil to The Americas than Saudi Arabia, through the Port of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to increase the continental oil availability sustained by Venezuela, Mexico, Trinidad, the USA, and keep price low for all in The Americas. All that would happen if there is a natural channel to spur such transcontinental developments, if there is just a one-structured funneling mechanism of capital to cause things and people to grow on both sides of the continent. Once that oil supply is secured, both continent could then turn their attention to the development and mass-depolyment of new green energies technologies to re-power the transcontinental African-American economies in a more sustainable way.
3-About Haiti and the vocation of Processing Africa's Raw materials and Goods for The America's consumption
And becoming that funneling mechanism is among the 3 principal natural vocations of Haiti in the world economy. These are what we set ourselves to do in the next 25 to 30 years. As Haitians, this is the only way for us to stop fighting around a shrinking economic and opportunity pie; the only way to enlarge the pie using Africa and letting Africa and the Caribbean and The Americas use us and live, quite nicely, off the generous dividends as some other economies like Singapore have shown the way in parallel circumstances.
We would help reinventing international business in Africa in a way that meaningfully influences Africa's general economic development. Africa has been concentrating too much on export of raw materials instead of on manufactured goods. This is not a good bargain as its natural resources are being depleted but there is no massive advancement of its populations because raw materials are always sold cheaper than manufactured goods.
From Haiti, would spring the effort and the systematic ways and means to emphasize the development of intermediate and capital goods industries in Africa that can be customed finished in The Americas. In turn, that would create an explosion of job, of plenty and bounty that would transform the hundreds of millions of lives in the continent into willing and able consumers of Pan American's goods and certainly would turn millions of new well to do Africans into the new source for and the new wave of tourists that will visit North, Central and South America and The Caribbean, making the journey directly from Africa to the gates of Haiti's new jumbo intercontinental airport of La Gonave because Haiti has great historical significance for Africans as the place where the African Diaspora or people of African descent made their first political and military stand and success out of Africa. Haiti would be a Mecca that every person of African descent would have to visit or would have to go through to come enjoy The Americas’ adult playgrounds: The long chain of Caribbean Islands.
To Prepare Haiti and Africa To Get There From Here
We call this uplifting vision, a vision of re-making Haiti into a new Haitianna, a Haiti.2 that offers itself to help remake the African connection. And re-making the African connection will take, either in Haiti or in Africa, 5 critical indispensable massive mass elements:
- mass access to skills for all,
- mass access to new tools for all,
- mass access to capital and credit for all,
- mass access to opportunity for all and
- mass access to the support system or requisite critical infrastructures that help cause the transformation drive .
These 5 elements are the sine qua non, the musts that must take us away from the politics of smallness and of gradualism for the intended drive to mass wealth creation, mass wealth accumulation, and mass wealth distribution. And mass wealth distribution is the purpose and ultimate goal, the great "dessein" for the massive advancement of our populations we crave for. People can no longer wait for wealth to trickle down the old conventional gradual way and there is no need for that in this day and age, anyway.
The Politics of Hope for Haiti and Africa and of Overcoming Immobilism Specially If The G-8 is led by a US President Obama
Mass advancement strategy such as this one (mass access to skills, mass access to tools, mass access to capital, etc.) needs to be adopted everywhere, 1) if there is a vision for where is it heading and how far is it being taken, 2) if there is a new national entente or a new deal to let it happen and help it happen as one strategy that will lift all boats, 3) if there are institutional systems, structures and infrastructures being built to make that vision and that new deal happen and make them stick for good, and 4) if the adequate capitalization will be there or is there to fuel all that effort. If incrementalism and gradualism were used in Europe after World War II, Europeans would still be crawling as a result of under capitalization. It was rapid massive infusion of money, a Marshall Plan, which got them here. That is what Haiti and Africa would need today, as they have been for so long suffering of such under or inadequate capitalization. We want capitalism to flourish in Africa and in Haiti too, albeit it must be a capitalism of community with an explosion of plenty for a larger purpose instead of a savage capitalism, but there is no capitalism without capital anyway. And thank God this idea is being mulled over, even if timidly, by the G-8 and massive advancement strategy and adequate capitalization could become the way of the G-8, especially if an Obama is President of the United States.
America would be looking for, soon, for another motor for growth, for double digit growth if possible, to keep itself in the lead of nations and to offset its huge private and public comsuptions as high national debt and new jobs and new earnings are not there to help them keep up with the pace even with 2% to 4%growth annually. In the old world order and old model, America was dominating and powerful because it was willing and eager to make powerful other regimes and other countries, that were in its camp militarily and politically, to keep up with the interest of the bloc. And what America made, the bloc mass consumed it.
In the new model and new-world emerging, America will be powerful for China, Russia, Brazil, etc. if it takes countries like Haiti and continents like Africa and Mega countries like India and it acts as the rainmaker for these countries and an entire continent and makes them truly powerful economically over a definite horizon while using the dividends to keeps itself at the head of the class of nations. Britain,The United Kingdom, is the case in point. Pursuing selfish aims, self-serving domination aims, that make its business richer is great for America and was great for Britain until... Above all, Britain, The United Kingdom lost its grip on the world when it became incapable of projecting its power and might to continue to be the rainmakers in the world that were making other people and their countries powerful economically. Surely, the new generation of Americans will refuse that politics of smallness that can lead to America falling in that state of negative entropy.
A lot of our key people have been talking quietly about all this to some key young people loosely connected to the inner circles of a Barak Obama, Democrat, and of John Mccain, Republican, so as to seize the moment as soon as the time is right. But if there is a Democrat in the White House, expectations will rise for an Obama to not just rise from the ranks but to rise with the ranks.
Answering The Chinese Challenge in Africa
For, the Chinese are steadily extending their political and economic influence across Africa, particularly in regions rich in oils and minerals; they are investing billions of dollars securing access to resources for their fast growing economy from Angola oil to Zambia copper mines and Zimbabwe’s platinum, etc.The Americas, under the leadership of the US and of the Caribbean, need to be a player as important as the Chinese are in the future of Africa. And the main platform in the Americas that can make this possible is Haiti, considered to be a natural outgrowth of Africa in the Americas. There must be regional action and hemispheric unity over this and Haiti stands ready as a there is a new Haiti, a Haiti.2 under new management, that is taking shape in the minds of young Haitians and in my mind, as Haiti’s aspiring transformational leader.Let’s hopes that the US and the other countries of the Americas and of the Caribbean see and act on this Haitian/African opportunity as well.
For our part, I, Justima, have started with a round of preliminary policies discussions with world leaders regarding security in Haiti and regarding a plan of pacification and definitive stabilization of Haiti by Haitians themselves; a plan that the international community could support and trust for results. It is a plan that was reviewed by top former Haitian military brass, that declares war to Haiti's perennial chaos and that could subsequently create the proper contexts to establish the new State of Haiti that is outlined above, for an explosion of opportunities for trade and foreign investments in the recalcitrant lands of Haiti and of Africa.The only way to guarantee this future, on both sides of the continent, is to help create it.
Ex-Presidential Candidate of the Senp Sitwayen-Action Democratique political regrouping
Leader of the new Popular Political Platform JWISANS
What is CARICOM?
Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom) established - 4 July 1973; effective - 1 August 1973Aim - to promote economic integration and development, especially among the less developed countries.Members - (15) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and TobagoAssociate members - (5) Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
An Article ABout China's Interets with Africa
BBC: Trade to top China-Africa summit, November 2006
Top Summit of November 2006 Heads of state and ministers from at least 45 African nations hold a summit with China on expanding trade.
Trade to top China-Africa summit
More than 40 African heads of state and ministers are in Beijing for a summit with China on trade and investment. "We take great pride in China's strong and warm friendship with Africa," said Chinese Vice-Premier Wu Yi at the opening of the conference. As its economy booms, China's drive to buy African oil and other commodities has led to a big increase in two-way trade, worth $42bn (£22bn) in 2005.Africa is also a growing market for Chinese goods. But critics say Beijing is stifling African manufacturing. Some analysts have said Africa is the only place left to go, as most of the world's other big oil reserves are already being developed by major Western energy companies.The three-day summit celebrates 50 years of diplomatic relations between China and Africa. It opens with talks between foreign ministers from at least 45 African nations and China. But the discussions will primarily be about the rapidly expanding economic ties between the two sides.Trade between China and Africa has increased tenfold since 1995. Officials have said that up to 2,500 separate business deals could be under discussion during the summit. Many of them are expected to revolve around China's hunger for African mineral resources, particularly oil. One of the countries taking part in the summit is Nigeria - Africa's biggest exporter of crude oil.
Some critics have voiced concerns over how Chinese-owned firms are treating African workers. I think many of us African leaders have in fact taken independent positions that may or may not be consistent with China's own policy stance Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf Liberian PresidentProtests broke out in Zambia in July about the alleged ill-treatment of workers at a Chinese-owned mine, and there have been reports of pay disputes in Namibia.China's supporters point to the fact that it has invested billions of dollars in aid, cheap loans and helping to upgrade roads, ports, railways, telephone lines, power stations and other key infrastructure across Africa. Often, Chinese money is funding projects that Western investors had deemed too risky. Many economists argue that overall, China's growing economic ties to Africa are benefiting the region.Taiwan displeasedMeanwhile, the international community has criticized China's attitude towards some African countries: notably, its refusal to criticize Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, and its reluctance to force the Sudanese government to accept UN peacekeepers in Darfur.But in an interview with the BBC, Liberia's President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf said that accepting China's investment would not mean agreeing with its political standpoint."When it comes to certain continental political positions, I think Africa must look at the positions we take, irrespective of what stance China takes, whether it's on Darfur, whatever else, and I think many of us African leaders have in fact taken independent positions that may or may not be consistent with China's own policy stance," she said. Mrs. Johnson-Sirleaf said that her own country was a prime example of an African nation standing up to Chinese policies."In Liberia, we're trying to settle our huge debt problem. China wanted to provide some resources on the basis of sovereign guarantees. We said no, we can't take your money on that basis," she said.
In a separate development, Taiwan has called on the five African countries with whom it has diplomatic relations not to attend the summit. Gambia, Malawi, Burkina Faso, Swaziland and Sao Tome all have links with the island, which China regards as a breakaway renegade province rather than an independent state.China has said that the five countries are welcome to send observers to the Sino-African summit, though they remain ineligible to join in the Sino-African strategic economic partnership as long as they continue to recognize Taiwan.
Story from BBC NEWS
What is African Development Bank (AfDB)?
Its predecessor was Organization of African Unity (OAU)Established - 9 September 1999Aim - to promote economic and social developmentRegional members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, ZimbabweNon-regional members - (24) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US
What is African Union (AU)?It replaces Organization of African Unity (OAU)Established - 8 July 2001Aim - to achieve greater unity among African States; to defend states' integrity and independence; to accelerate political, social, and economic integration; to encourage international cooperation; to promote democratic principles and institutions.
Members - (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara), Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, ZimbabweWhat is African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)?Established - 6 June 1975Aim - to manage their preferential economic and aid relationship with the EUMembers - (79) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Federated States of Micronesia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe